Color: Heartwood varies from light yellow/orange to reddish brown or yellowish brown; sapwood is light tan to yellowish white.
Grain: Closed, with high figuring; patterns range from clear to knotty.
Variations within species and grades: Longleaf pine (P. palustris), shortleaf pine (P. echinata), loblolly pine (P. taeda), slash pine (P. elliottii). All have many of the same characteristics as Douglas fir. Old-growth lumber in these varieties has substantially higher density and is more stable than second-growth material.